Учебно-методическое пособие казановедение



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МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ РФ


КАЗАНСКИЙ ФЕДЕРАЛЬНЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ


УЧЕБНО-МЕТОДИЧЕСКОЕ ПОСОБИЕ


КАЗАНОВЕДЕНИЕ

НА АНГЛИЙСКОМ ЯЗЫКЕ

МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ РФ


КАЗАНСКИЙ ФЕДЕРАЛЬНЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ


УЧЕБНО-МЕТОДИЧЕСКОЕ ПОСОБИЕ


КАЗАНОВЕДЕНИЕ

НА АНГЛИЙСКОМ ЯЗЫКЕ

Казань


2012

УДК 802+908:075
ББК 74.200.51
П32


Научный редактор: д.филол.н., профессор Садыкова А.Г.
Рецензенты: д.филол.н., профессор Солнышкина М.И.,

к.филол.н., профессор Мухаметдинова Р.Г.


Составители: Пименова Т.С., Пименова Н.Д., Баширова Д.Р., Шалдымова О.В.

Учебно-методическое пособие «Английский язык и Казановедение» адресовано учащимся гуманитарных профильных классов школ с углубленным изучением английского языка, студентам I-II курсов факультетов иностранных языков и широкому кругу читателей, интересующихся историей родного края. Настоящее пособие может быть использовано в педагогической практике студентов факультетов иностранных языков.

Пособие прошло экспериментальную апробацию в 10-11 классах СШ № 1 г. Казани, в которой созданы профильные классы, а также в Институте филологии и искусств Казанского федерального университета. Поскольку пособие включает в себя статьи, содержащие биографические данные о выдающихся деятелях науки, образования и искусства, внесших неоценимый вклад в развитие нашего города и составляющих его историю и славу, оно может быть использовано и в качестве справочника.

УДК 802+908:075
ББК 74.200.51
П32

СОДЕРЖАНИЕ

Предисловие.............................................................................5

Из истории государства Болгар............................................11

Казань – столица Татарстана ...............................................39

Великие люди – великие события .......................................56

Методические рекомендации и разработки уроков .........141

Темы докладов и рефератов …………………...................159

Рекомендуемая литература……………..………………...160



ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ
Язык – это отражение культуры и истории народа, именно поэтому предмет «Иностранный язык», на наш взгляд, являет собой уникальное средство в формировании национального самосознания школьников.

Собственный культурный опыт всегда первичен при восприятии чужой культуры. У Гюнтера Андерса, немецкого писателя и философа, есть басня «Лев»: «Впервые услышав львиный рык, муха сказала курице: «Как странно он жужжит!». Та возразила: «Он не жужжит, он квохчет, но делает это он, действительно, как-то странно!». Так и мы часто оцениваем происходящее, сквозь призму нашего языка и культуры, порой, не отдавая себе отчета в том, что можем заблуждаться. Осваивая новые культурные реалии, учащийся расширяет возможности своего отражения.

Наивысших результатов можно добиться при условии, что изучение иностранного языка основывается на межкультурном сравнительном подходе. В нашем понимании, именно сравнение, нахождение сходных признаков (внешности, языка, обычаев), то есть выполнение простейших познавательных операций, укрепляет самосознание и национальное самосознание на основе межличностного отношения в многонациональной группе. Дети учатся видеть мир глазами разных людей, учитывая то, что другой человек может воспринимать и оценивать те же факты, поступки, события совершенно по-иному. Воспитание терпимости к другим вкусам, привычкам, взглядам поможет школьнику не только найти общий язык со сверстниками, с учителями, родителями, но и с представителями других культур. Воспитание уважения к другим и самоуважения, способности смотреть на исторические события глазами людей соответствующей эпохи, позволяет учащимся осознать причины и суть развития исторических процессов.

Рост конфликтов, нарастание межнациональной напряжённости – характерные черты наступившего XXI века. По результатам социологических опросов национальное самосознание россиян обладает динамичной структурой, реагирующей на всю совокупность изменений, происходящих как внутри страны, так и в ее внешнеполитическом статусе. Очень сильно выросло ощущение внешней опасности, стремление к Востоку ради баланса отношений с Западом и несколько увеличилась доля тех, кто настаивает, что Россия как великая держава должна заставить другие государства и народы уважать себя. Все это происходит, мы считаем, не только по политическим, экономическим и прочим причинам, но и ещё и потому, что мы совсем немного знаем друг о друге, не уважаем культуру не только других народов, но и часто свою собственную, тем, что совершенно с ней не знакомы. Поэтому одной из первоочередных задач российской школы должно стать формирование установок толерантного самосознания учащихся. На это нацеливает и Постановление Правительства РФ от 25.08.2001 г. № 629 о федеральной целевой программе «Формирование установок толерантного сознания и профилактика экстремизма в российском обществе (2001-2005 г.г.)».

Вплоть до середины XX века полагали, что понятия нация, этнос будут постепенно терять свое значение в жизни людей вследствие модернизации развития гражданского общества. Недооценка национального фактора была характерной чертой отечественного обществоведения, которое неизменно отстаивало абсолютный приоритет классовых отношений и не уделяло при этом должного внимания значимости этнических компонентов. Однако социально-историческая практика показала: нации не только сохранили, но и усилили свою роль в социальных и политических процессах.

Формирование национального менталитета, сохранение самобытности культуры, истории, традиций наций происходит в жесточайшей борьбе со средствами массовой информации, в большинстве своем распространяющие «культурный хлам», не имеющий национальной принадлежности. Решение проблемы мы видим в противопоставлении этому информационному потоку «культурных отбросов» другого информационного потока, содержательно ориентированного на сохранение и развитие национального самосознания.

Известно, что для формирования и развития национального самосознания учащихся необходимы:


  1. Национальная среда (язык, быт, традиции, географические особенности место проживания нации и пр.).

  2. Национальное образование (приобщение к культуре, литературе, знакомство с литературным языком нации, ее историей и пр.).

  3. Межнациональное общение (осознание уникальности национальных ценностей и определение места нации в мировом сообществе).


Структура учебно-методического пособия
Цель учебно-методического пособия «Английский язык и Казановедение»– представить столицу Республики Татарстан именами выдающихся людей – от первых просветителей X века до крупнейших ученых, мыслителей и талантливых деятелей искусства XXI столетия – , которые внесли неоценимый вклад в развитие нашего города и составляют ныне его историю и славу. Учебно-методическое пособие служит реализации воспитания национального самосознания учащихся посредством иностранного языка.

Настоящее пособие адресовано учащимся гуманитарных профильных классов школ с углубленным изучением английского языка, студентам I-II курсов факультетов иностранных языков и широкому кругу читателей, интересующихся историей родного края. Пособие может быть использовано в педагогической практике студентов факультетов иностранных языков.

Учебно-методическое пособие «Английский язык и Казановедение» прошло экспериментальную апробацию в 10-11 классах СШ № 1 г. Казани, в которой созданы профильные классы, а также на факультете иностранных языков Татарского государственного гуманитарно-педагогического университета. Поскольку пособие включает в себя статьи, содержащие биографические данные о выдающихся деятелях науки, образования и искусства, оно может быть использовано и в качестве справочника.

В первом разделе настоящего пособия предлагаются отрывки из оригинальных произведений на английском языке, отобранные из трудов известных историков как, например, из книги А.А.Рорлих «Происхождение Поволжских татар», содержащие сведения об истории нашей республики, в частности, о древних Булгарах и о происхождении казанских татар, а также тексты о нашей столице и ее достопримечательностях. Все тексты снабжены заданиями и подробными комментариями.

Во втором разделе пособия мы представили краткие биографические данные о выдающихся людях нашего края, которые оставили глубокий след не только в истории нашего города, но и в сердцах людей. Все они представители разных профессий, и каждый из них достиг успеха в своей сфере деятельности, прославив Казань далеко за ее пределами. Их имена запечатлены в названиях улиц, парков, площадей нашей столицы. Большинство текстов представлено на двух языках – русском и английском. Тексты, которые приводятся на одном языке, могут быть предложены для перевода их на другой язык в виде самостоятельной работы учащихся под руководством учителя.

Третий раздел содержит фрагменты уроков, которые могут быть рекомендованы для проведения в 10-11-х классах школ с углубленным изучением английского языка, а также для студентов I и II курсов ФИЯ педагогических ВУЗов. В этом разделе также предусмотрены примерные задания для учащихся, способствующие развитию их коммуникативной компетенции: речевой, языковой и социокультурной в качестве приоритетных.

Песня о Казани
Пименова Н.Д.
Красавица у реченьки сидела,

Нагнулась, почерпнуть воды хотела.

Дно казана на солнце заблестело,

И в нем она соперницу узрела.

Мечта она художников, поэтов.

Глаза ее синее глади вод,

А брови – полумесяц минаретов.

Лицом бела, смеется алый рот.

Легко попасть в сей чудный сладкий плен:

Затянут стан ее кольцом из белых стен,

И шпили башен в косы вплетены,

Цветам на изумрудном платье нет цены.

Не оторвать глаз от красы такой.

Казань-столица – город мой!

Сегодня, как и сотни лет назад,

К стопам твоим припасть я рад.

Красавица задумчиво смотрела

На синь воды, что быстро потемнела,

Лишь солнце красное за речку село.

А казанок уплыл – не доглядела.

От Вас давно нет у меня секретов.

Средь суеты сует ты обернись –

Красу узришь на фоне силуэтов

Кремлевских стен; Казани улыбнись!


Из истории государства Булгар
Before you start
I. Read:
Key words
tribal [ıtraıbəl], emergence [ıımə:dЗəns], culminated [ıkΛlmıneıtıd], entity [ıentıtı], descendant [dıısendənt], steppe [step], embassy [ıembəsı], khan [kα:n], augment [ıo:gmənt]
II. Read the text The Bulgar State (Part 1) and answer the questions:
1. What did the process of consolidation of the peoples of the Middle Volga result in?

2. When did the Arab travelers visit the Middle Volga for the first time?

3. How many rivers did Ibn-Fadlan and his embassy have to cross during his trip to the Bulgar State?

4. What tribes inhabited the Bulgar state?


The Bulgar State (Part 1)
At the end of the ninth and at the beginning of the tenth centuries, the process of territorial, tribal1, and political consolidation the peoples of the Middle Volga had been undergoing for more than a century culminated in the emergence2 of a political entity3 founded by the descendants of those Bulgar tribes who Batbay4 had let out of the Azov steppes during the first quarter of the eighth century A.D.5

Arab travelers who visited the Middle Volga region during the tenth century identified the territory of the Bulgar state as the geographic area between the rivers Cheremshan (in the south), Sviaga (in the west), Kama (in the north) and Sheshma (in the east). Ibn-Fadlan6 enumerated most of the rivers he and his embassy had to cross during their trip to the Khan of the Bulgars in A.D. 922: ‘And we left the country of (these people) Bashkirs and crossed the river Dzharamsan (Cheremshan), then the river Uran (Uren), then the river Uram (Urem), then the Bainakh (Maina), then the river Vatyg (Utka), then the river Niiasna (Neiaslovka), and then the Dzhavshyz (Gausherma).’

By the eleventh and twelfth centuries, the Bulgar state had augmented its territory7: in the east, its borders reached the river Zai, and in the south, they extended to Samara. The bulk of the population8 belonged to five tribes: the Bulgars proper, the Suvars, the Esegal, the Versula, and the Barandzhar.

Notes:


1 tribal – племенной

2 culminated in the emergence – завершился появлением

3 entity – организация

4 Batbay – Батбай, сын Курбат хана

5 A.D. (лат.) – нашей эры

6 Ibn-Fadlan – Ибн Фадлан (Единственный проповедник мусульманства, побывавший в Х веке в Волжской Булгарии. Именно при нем там был принят ислам в качестве официальной религии.)

7 had augmented its territory – (Булгарское государство) расширило свои границы

8 The bulk of the population – основная масса населения

Before you start
I. Read:
Key words
effect [ııfekt], envoy [ıenvoı], embassy [ıembəsı], religion [rıılıdЗən], hierarchy [ıhaıərα:kı], tribal [ıtraıbəl], indulge [ınıdΛldЗ], vassalage [væsəlıdЗ], khan [kα:n], sign [saın], treaty [ıtrı:tı], privilege [ıprıvılıdЗ], merchant [ımə:t∫ənt]
II. Read the text The Bulgar State (Part 2) and answer the following questions:


  1. What effect did the adoption of Islam in the Bulgar State produce?

  2. Who was the envoy of Almush to Baghdad?

  3. What was the purpose of Ibn-Fadlan’s visit to the Bulgar State?

III. Read the text The Bulgar State (Part 2) more carefully. Prove the statements:


1. Almush, the son of the Bulgar prince Shilki, wanted to adopt Islam.

2. Almush was a powerful leader and did much to strengthen his position.

3. The establishment of ties between the Bulgar State and Russ was profitable for both lands.
The Bulgar State (Part 2)
Almus (Almas)1, the son of the Bulgar prince Shilki, became the yltyvar (ruler) of the Bulgar State, and his decision to adopt Islam had a catalytic effect2 on the process of consolidation and centralization in his lands. In the spring of 921, Abdallah ibn-Bashtu arrived in Bagdad as the envoy3 of Almush, the ruler of the peoples of the north, to caliph Jafar al-Muktadir4. He carried three letters conveying Almush’s desire to be instructed in the religion of Islam, for which he was requesting assistance. It was in response to this request that, in the same year, al-Muktadir sent Ibn-Fadlan’s embassy to the land of the Bulgars. The result was that, in 922, the people of the Bulgar state joined the Islamic imam (community of believers). To be accurate, however, it should be noted that this was the year Islam became the official religion of the Bulgar state, and that even before Ibn-Fadlan’s5 arrival, Islam had become the religion of the people who lived along the shores of the Volga and Kama.

Almush stood at the head of a social hierarchy6 comprised of clearly distinguishable groups: tribal heads and lesser princes7 were subordinated directly to him: these, in turn, controlled the craftsmen and the semi-free peasantry8. The yltyvar of the Bulgars seems to have put a great value on ceremony and symbolism to underline his position, and he also seems to have indulged in some of the trapping of power9 even before even before the victory of the Russian prince Sviatoslav10 over the Khazars in 965 ended the Bulgar’s vassalage to the Khazar Khan.

One of the true measures of the emancipation of the Bulgar State from Khazar vassalage was the ability of its rulers to establish diplomatic ties and conclude treaties with their neighbours, as well as with the rulers of more distant lands. In 984, for instance, the Bulgars signed their first treaty with Kiev. When that treaty was renewed in 1006, it included trade privileges for the Bulgar and Russian merchants11.
Notes:

1 Almus (Almas) – Алмуш (Алмас), предводитель болгар, правивший в 901-922 г.г.

2 had a catalytic effect – способствовало ускорению

3 as the envoy – в качестве посла

4 caliph Jafar al-Muktadir – халиф Багдада Джафар ал-Муктадир

5 Ibn-Fadlan – Ибн Фадлан (см. текст The Bulgar State. Part 1)

6 hierarchy – иерархия

7 lesser princes – подчиненные князья

8 semi-free peasantry – полусвободное крестьянство

9 seems to have indulged in some of the trapping of power – увлекался внешними атрибутами власти

10 Sviatoslav – князь Святослав

11 merchants – купцы
Before you start
I. Read:
Key words
neighboring [ıneıbərıη], principalities [ֽprınsııpælıtız], neither [ınaı∂ə], smooth [smu:∂], tension [ıten∫ən], throughout [θru:ıaut], frequently [ıfrı:kwəntlı], campaigns [kæmıpeınz], entire [ınıtaıə], devastated [ıdevəsteıtıd], imminent [ıımınənt], hostilities [hosıtılıtız], despite [dısıpaıt], commercial [kəımə:∫əl], economic [ֽı:kəınomık], although [o:lı∂əu], disrupted [dısırΛptıd], agriculture [ıægrıkΛlt∫ə], economy [ı:ıkonəmı], plow [plau], particularly [pəıtıkjuləlı], virgin [ıvə:dЗın], effective [ııfektıv], cultivated [ıkΛltıveıtıd], barley [ıba:lı], wheat [wı:t], commented [ıkoməntıd]
II. Read the text The Bulgar State (Part 3) and answer the following questions:
1. Why, in your opinion, the Bulgar state and the neighboring Russian principalities were at one and the same time trade partners and enemies, that penetrated each other’s lands from time to time?

2. Why was the Bulgar economics, suffering from the conflicts with Russian principalities, still working?

3. Why was The Volga-Kama region suitable for agriculture?
III. Read the text The Bulgar State (Part 3) more carefully. Match the words with their meanings. Write the suitable word near the appropriate meaning.


1) Clash

a) the people living together in one house collectively

2) Hostility

b) a piece of equipment; tool or utensil

3) Disruption

c) a collision or conflict

4) Implement

d) breaking or splitting (something) apart

5) Household

e) enmity or antagonism


The Bulgar State (Part 3)
The relationship of the Bulgar state with the neighboring Russian principalities1 was neither smooth nor free of tension2. In fact, throughout the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, they clashed frequently. The Russian campaigns against the Bulgars unfolded over an entire century3, with the most notable ones taking place in 1120, 1160, 1164, 1172, 1183, and 1120 – at which times Russian armies devastated4 the right bank of the Volga, destroying the city of Oshel. The Bulgars, in turn, penetrated the Russian lands in 1201 and 1219, and it was only the imminent5 Mongol danger in 1223 that brought the hostilities to an end and led to conclusion of a peace treaty.

Despite tension and frequent clashes, the relationship between the Bulgar State and the Russian principalities was not solely6 one of hostilities. Trade and commercial ties were as important for the Bulgars as they were for the Russian principalities, and the economic life of the Bulgar state, although disrupted by hostilities, never came to a halt7 because of them. Agriculture, crafts, cattle breeding, hunting, fishing, and trade represented the backbone8 of Bulgar economy.

The Volga-Kama region, with its rich black soil, was suitable for the agriculture. The two-field system9 that was used was particularly suitable for the cultivation of virgin lands. The basic implements were the heavy metal plow10 (saban) with a single share11, which was effective for the virgin, blackearth soils, and the light wooden plow with two iron shapes used for podzol soils12.

The climate, more than the soil or agricultural technology, determined the types of crops the Bulgars cultivated. Barley13, wheat, and millet14 seem to have been the traditional crops because most travelers noted their presence in the Volga-Kama region. Ibn-Fadlan15 commented: ‘They met us carrying bread, meat, and millet … their food consists of millet and horsemeat but they have also wheat and barley in abundance16, and every one of them who planted this harvests it for himself. The ruler does not have any right to this, except for the fact that they all pay him every year one sable pelt per household17.


Notes:

1 principalities – княжества

2 was neither smooth nor free of tension – развивались негладко

3 unfolded over an entire century – проводились в течение всего столетия

4 devastated – разоряли

5 imminent – надвигающийся

6 solely – исключительно, только

7 never came to a halt – ни на минуту (никогда) не прерывалась

8 backbone – основа

9 two-field system – двупольная система

10 plow – плуг

11 share – лемех, сошник (плуга)

12 podzol soils – подзолистые почвы

13 barley – ячмень

14 millet – просо

15 Ibn-Fadlan – Ибн Фадлан (см. текст The Bulgar State. Part 1)

16 in abundance – в избытке

17 one sable pelt per household – по одной соболиной шкурке с хозяйства

Before you start
I. Read:
Key words
ethnogenetic [ֽeθnoudЗıınetık], hindered [ıhındəd], emergence [ıımə:dЗəns], ethnonym [ıeθnounım], rehabilitation [ֽrı:əbılııteı∫ən], urged [ə:dЗd], challenged [ıt∫ælındЗd], theses [ıθı:sız], proponents [prəıpounənts], etymology [ֽetıımolədЗı], deriving [dııraıvıη], contempt [kənıtempt], subdued [səbıdju:d], khan [kα:n], demise [dıımaız], seminomadic [ֽsemınouımædık], bequeathed [bııkwı:∂d], zenith [ızenıθ], huge [hju:dЗ], minorities [maıınorıtız], assimilation [əֽsımııleıθən], thesis [ıθı:sıs], compiled [kəmıpaıld], testimony [ıtestımənı], bestowed [bısıtoud]
II. Read the text The Origins of the Volga Tatars (Part 1) carefully. Are these statements true or false?
1. There are two major groups in the Turkic nationalities living in Russia.

2. Volga Tatars never identified themselves as Muslims.

3. There are a lot of theses on the origin of the ethnonym Tatar.

4. The Mongols and the Mongol Tatars underwent a process of assimilation by the Turkic peoples among whom they lived.


III. Read the text The Origins of the Volga Tatars (Part 1) and solve the crossword.

Across

1. How did the Volga Tatars prefer to identify themselves in the 2nd half of the XIX century?

2. Batu’s army was called the Golden …

3. The surname of one of the enlightened Tatar thinkers.

4. The way of life led by the Turkic khanate in the VI-VII centuries AD.

Down

1. The second major group of the Volga Tatars.

2. The name of the famous Mongol khan, the grandfather of Batu.

3. The Mongolian name for the word council.

4. To сapture (synonym).



The Origins of the Volga Tatars (Part 1)
The Volga Tatars are the westernmost of all Turkic nationalities living in Russia1. Among them, there are two major groups – the Kazan Tatars and the Mishars; although each is characterized by linguistic and ethnogenetic particularities2, their differences have not hindered3 the emergence4 and development of a common language and culture.
The Ethnonym5 Tatar
As late as the second half of the XIX century, Volga Tatars preferred to identify themselves, and to be identified by others, as Muslims.

At the end of the XIX century, enlightened Tatar thinkers, such as Kayum Nasiri and Shihabeddin Marjani, played a major role in the rehabilitation6 of the ethnonym Tatar. S.Marjani urged7 the Kazanis not to be ashamed to call themselves Tatars. He noted that “Some have regarded being a Tatar a shortcoming, hated it, and insisted ‘We are not Tatars, we are Muslims’ … If you are not Tatar, Arab, Tajil, Nogay, Chinese, Russian, French … then who are you?” challenged8 S.Marjani.

What is the origin of the ethnonym Tatar? Two theses stand out: the Mongol and the Turkic.

Proponents of the first accept the etymology of Tatar as deriving from the Chinese Ta-Tan or Da-Dan9 (a term of contempt applied to the Mongols by the Chinese) and believe that it refers to one group of Mongol tribes subdued by Ginghis Khan.

The Mongol Tatars lived amidst Turkic tribes that had survived the demise10 of the seminomadic11 Turkic khanate of the VI and VII centuries A.D.12 After their conquest by Ginghis Khan at the beginning of the XIII century (1202-1208), the Mongol Tatars, as well as the Turkic tribes of the southern Siberian plains and Central Asia, were included in the army headed by Ginghis Khan’s grandson, Batu. In 1236, Batu, in the company of his sons Chagatai, Ogotai, and Tului, set out to conquer the eastern European lands bequeathed to him13 at the 1235 kurultai (council). Conquering the lands beyond the Ural mountains and the Aral and Caspian seas, the Mongols came into contract with the Turkic Kypachaks, who had reached the zenith of their political power in the XI and XII centuries A.D. as rulers of Dasht-i Kypchak, the huge territory between the Irtysh and Danube rivers.

The Mongols and the Mongol Tatars, who were minorities in Batu Khan’s army and even smaller minorities among the peoples of the Golden Horde that had emerged after Batu’s conquest of the lands beyond the Urals, underwent a process of assimilation by the Turkic peoples14 among whom they settled. This assimilation was both biological and cultural.

The Turkic thesis, which is not as widely accepted as the Mongol thesis, was advanced by scholars who rely heavily on the Diwan-i Lugat-it-Turk, a dictionary of the Turkic languages complied by Mahmud al-Kashari during the period 1072 to 1074. In this book, Mahmud al-Kashgari mentions that west of the Irtysh river there existed a Tatar branch of the Turkic languages15. Ahmet Temir interprets this information as a testimony to the existence of a Turkic people called Tatars long before the Mongol conquest bestowed the name on the peoples of the Golden Horde16. Broadening his interpretation of the information provided by the dictionary, Ahmet Temir also suggests that the name could apply independently and equally to two different peoples: the Mongol tribe of Tatars and a Turkic tribe that inhabited a territory west of the Ural mountains.


Notes:

1 The Volga Tatars are the westernmost of all Turkic nationalities living in Russia – Волжские татары территориально находятся западнее всех остальных тюркских народов, проживающих в России.

2 by linguistic and ethnogenetic particularities – лингвистическими и этногенетическими особенностями

3 have not hindered – не препятствовали

4 emergence – появление

5 ethnonym – этноним (название различных видов этнических общностей)

6 rehabilitation – зд. возрождение

7 urged – убеждал, призывал

8 challenged – задавал вопрос

9 Proponents of the first accept the etymology of Tatar as deriving from the Chinese Ta-Tan or Da-Dan – Сторонники первой гипотезы считают, что происхождение этнонима Tatar восходит к китайскому слову Ta-Tan или Da-Dan

10 had survived the demise – уцелели после распада

11 seminomadic – полукочевой

12 A.D. (лат.) – нашей эры

13 set out to conquer the eastern European lands bequeathed to him – отправился завоевывать восточные европейские земли, завещанные ему в наследство

14 underwent a process of assimilation by the Turkic peoples – подверглись процессу слияния с тюркскими народами

15 west of the Irtysh river there existed a Tatar branch of the Turkic languages – к западу от реки Иртыш существовала татарская ветвь тюркских языков

16 long before the Mongol conquest bestowed the name on the peoples of the Golden Horde – за долго до того, как монгольское завоевание распространило это название на народы Золотой Орды
Before you start
I. Read:
Key words
début [ıdeıbu:], interference [ֽıntəıfıərəns], affairs [əıfεəz], forge [fo:dЗ], dynastic [dıınæstık], khanate [ıka:neıt], appanage [ıæpənıdЗ], compliance [kəmıplaıəns], requires [rııkwaıəz], legitimacy [lııdЗıtıməsı], candidacy [ıkændıdəsı], successful [səkısesful], ensued [ıınsju:d], throughout [θru:ıaut], Crimea [kraıımıə], Muscovite [ımΛskəuvaıt], disputing [dısıpju:tıη], succession [səkıse∫ən], commercial [kəımə:∫əl], vulnerable [ıvΛlnərəbl], climate [ıklaımıt], decades [ıdekeıdz], collapse [kəılæps], alliance [əılaıəns], allies [ıælaız], succeeded [səkısı:dıd], rivalry [ıraıvəlrı], tsar [za:], hostile [ıhostaıl], culminate [ıkΛlmıneıt], militant [ımılıtənt], orthodox [ıo:θədoks], ideology [ֽaıdııolədЗı], annexationist [ֽænekıseı∫ənıst], policies [ıpolısız], autocratic [ֽotəuıkrætık]
II. Read the text The Origins of the Volga Tatars (Part 2) and answer the following questions:
1. How did Russian interference in the life of the Kazan khanate begin?

2. Who were Ibrahim, Kasim, and Muhammed Emin?

3. Why was Muscovy eager to bring Kazan under the absolute control?

4. When and by whom was Kazan conquered? What were the reasons for that?


III. Link the words below to get word combinations:


orthodox

domestic


appanage

hostile


absolute

dynastic


commercial

affairs

prince


policy

conflict


control

ideology


interests

IV. Write the historic events which happened in the years given below:




  • 1467

  • 1479

  • 1552

The Origins of the Volga Tatars (Part 2)
The full début of Russian interference in Kazani domestic affairs1 took place in 1467, when Ivan III, the first grand prince to forge an active policy with regard to Kazan2, chose to take an active part in the dynastic struggle of the khanate. Upon Mahmud’s death in 1467, the throne of Kazan was contested by3 his son Ibrahim and his brother Kasim, who had been in Muscovite service since 1445 and had served the grand prince loyally as appanage prince of Meshchera4.

When Mahmud’s widow travelled to Moscow to marry Kasim, she may have done so in compliance with Islamic tradition5, which requires a man to marry the widow of his brother; in doing so, however, she may also have provided an added measure of legitimacy to Kasim’s claims to the throne of Kazan and at the same time increased the hopes of the Kazani faction that supported Kasim’s candidacy. Ivan III backed Kasim in his bid for the throne of Kazan6, but despite Muscovite blessing and military support, Kasim was not successful in ousting7 Ibrahim. Ibrahim’s death in 1479 and the dynastic conflict that ensued8 were skillfully exploited by Ivan III, who successfully backed the candidacy of another Tatar prince, Muhamed Emin, and as a result9, was able to interfere freely in the domestic affairs of the khanate throughout Muhammed Emin’s first rule (1484-1485).

Muhammed Emin’s death in 1518 brought about the extinction of Ulu Muhammed’s line and prompted Crimea to join Muscovy in openly disputing the issue of Kazani succession10.

Muscovy benefited greatly from its trade11 with Kazan. As the volume of trade between the two partners expanded, Muscovy’s dependence on it grew as well, rendering its commercial interests increasingly vulnerable to changes in the political climate12 between the two politics.

For more than two decades after the collapse of the Muscovite-Crimean alliance, the Kazan khanate became the theater in which the former allies tested each other’s influence over Kazani politics and sought to confine13 that khanate to an exclusive partnership with one or the other. The pro-Muscovite and pro-Crimean khans who occupied the throne of Kazan after 1518 succeeded each other14 in a pattern that both reflects this rivalry and suggests an increased eagerness on the part of15 Muscovy to bring Kazan under its absolute control.

Ivan IV’s coronation as tsar in 1547 marked the beginning of an overtly hostile policy16 toward Kazan that would culminate in its conquest on October 2 (15), 1552. This shift to unredeeming hostility toward Kazan was largely determined17 by the role militant orthodox ideology played in encouraging the expansionist and annexationist policies of the autocratic Muscovite state.


Notes:

1 domestic affairs – внутренние дела

2 the first grand prince to forge an active policy with regard to Kazan – первый великий князь, который вел активную политику по отношению к Казани

3 was contested by – был завоеван

4 as appanage prince of Meshchera – удельный князь Мещеры

5 in compliance with Islamic tradition – в соответствии с исламской традицией

6 backed Kasim in his bid for the throne of Kazan – поддержал Касима в его посягательствах на казанский трон

7 was not successful in ousting – ему не удалось изгнать (Ибрагима)

8 the dynastic conflict that ensued – династический кризис, который последовал

9 and as a result – в результате

10 prompted Crimea to join Muscovy in openly disputing the issue of Kazani succession – подтолкнула Крым наравне с Московией открыто оспаривать право наследования казанского престола

11 benefited greatly from its trade – получали большую выгоду от торговли

12 rendering its commercial interests increasingly vulnerable to changes in the political climate – делая их интересы всё более уязвимыми к изменениям в политическом климате

13 sought to confine – пытались склонить

14 succeeded each other in a pattern – сменяли друг друга (на престоле)

15 on the part of – со стороны

16 an overtly hostile policy – открыто враждебная политика

17 This shift to unredeeming hostility toward Kazan was largely determined – Этот переход к нескончаемой враждебности по отношению к Казани был в большей степени определён
Before you start
I. Read:
Key words
precise [prıısaıs], boundaries [ıbaundərız], khanate [ıka:neıt], area [ıeərıə], confluence [ıkonfluəns], transcended [trænısendıd], multinational [ֽmΛltıınæ∫ənəl], ancestors [ıænsəstəz], binding [ıbaındıη], conglomerate [kənıglomərət], sovereignty [ısovrəntı], generic [dЗəınerık], aristocracy [ֽærııstokrəsı], hereditary [həıredətərı], wielded [ıwı:ldıd], Crimean [kraıımıən], testifies [ıtestıfaız], exerted [ıgızə:tıd], prestigious [preıstıdЗəs], cavalry [ıkævəlrı], envoy [ıenvoı], endowed [ınıdaud], merchants [ımə:t∫ənts], artisans [ֽa:tıızæn], urban [ıə:bən], peasants [ıpezənts], society [səısaıətı], references [ırefərənsıs], warehouse [ıwεəhaus], accurate [ıækjurət], heritage [ıherıtıdЗ], administrative [ədımınıstrətıv]
II Read the text and give the title which in your opinion best suits it.
III. Make the plan to the text and retell it.
IV. Translate into English:

1. Трудно определить точные границы Казанского ханства.

2. Казанское ханство, как и Республика Татарстан, было многонациональным государством.

3. Население казанского ханства делилось на классы, самым низшим был класс рабов.


The Origins of the Volga Tatars (Part 3)
Although it is difficult to define the precise boundaries1 of the Kazan khanate of the XVI century, its core area2 can be identified as the territory located in the Middle Volga basin3 around the confluence of the Volga and Kama rivers, an area that roughly corresponds to4 the territory of the present Republic of Tatarstan, and to the north-central lands of the Bulgar state.

Kazan’s economic and political influence transcended the borders5 of the khanate, however, and extended over an area flanked by Sura to the West and upper Kama and Belaya to the east. The khanate was a multinational state: within its boundaries6 lived not only Tatars but also Bashkirs, Cheremises, Chuvashes, and Votiaks (the ancestors of today’s Udmurts).

The binding element in the conglomerate that composed the Kazan Khanate was provided by the office of the khan, in which alone, the sovereignty of the state was vested7. The most important institution was that of the Karachi (the overseers), which was a generic royal council comprised of four members of the aristocracy led by the ulu karachi (the great, main overseers). The hereditary nature of the office of karachi is a measure of the power wielded by8 the Kazani aristocracy. Many of the karachi belonged to Crimean princely families, such as Shirin, Baryn, Argyn, and Kypchak, which testifies to9 the considerable influence the Crimean khanate exerted over10 Kazani policies.

The most prestigious members of the military establishment were the ulans, who were probably commanders of cavalry units who at times11 performed diplomatic as well as military services. Afash-ulan led the Kazani army that marched against Astrakhan in 1491, and Allaberdei ulan was Kazan’s envoy to Moscow in 1546. The ulans were endowed with land holdings12 in return for their services.

Merchants and artisans comprised the bulk of the free urban population of the khanate, and the Tatar, Bashkir, and various Fino-Ugric peasants were their free counterpart13 in the villages. At the very bottom of Kazani society stood the serfs and the slaves. Because they represented one of the main trade commodities of Kazan, the number of the slaves was impressive. In view of this reality, references to Kazan as a warehouse for slaves14 should be viewed not as metaphors but as reasonably accurate statements of fact15.

The Kazan khanate was true to the Mongol-Turkic heritage in the manner in which it approached its most important administrative function: collection of taxes and duties16.


Notes:

1 to define the precise boundaries – определить точные границы

2 core area – основная площадь

3 the Middle Volga basin – бассейн средней Волги

4 an area that roughly corresponds to – территория, приблизительно равная (современному Татарстану)

5 influence transcended the borders – влияние вышло (далеко) за пределы границ

6 within its boundaries – в пределах его границ

7 the sovereignty of the state was vested – принадлежала верховная власть в государстве

8 a measure of the power wielded by – та степень влияния, которым обладала (казанская аристократия)

9 which testifies to – что свидетельствует (о)

10 exerted over – оказывало (на)

11 at times – временами

12 were endowed with land holdings – были наделены земельными владениями

13 free counterpart – (составляли) вторую половину свободного населения

14 ware house for slaves – рынок рабов

15 as reasonably accurate statement of fact – как достоверный факт

16 taxes and duties – налоги и пошлины
Before you start
I. Read:
Key words
sedentary [ısedəntərı], agricultural [ıægrıֽkΛlt∫ərəl], khanate [ıka:neıt], reinforced [ֽrı:ınıfo:st], linguistic [lıηıgwıstık], folk [fəuk], plow [plau], legacy [ılegəsı], testimony [ıtestımənı], ancestors [ıænsəstəz], features [ıfı:t∫əz], agriculture [ıægrıֽkΛlt∫ə], components [kəmıpounənts], combined [kəmıbaınd], supplement [ısΛpləmənt], livelihood [ılaıvlıhud], peasants [ıpezənts], furs [ıf ə:z], leatherwork [ıle∂əwə:k], jewelry [ıdЗu:əlrı], wealthy [ıwelθı], prosperous [ıprospərəs], flourishing [ıflΛrı∫ıη], support [səıpo:t], khans [ıka:nz], pious [ıpaıəs], ethnogenesis [ֽeθnəuıdЗenısıs], insight [ıınsaıt], values [ıvælju:z], society [səısaıətı], venerable [ıvenərəbəl], aspired [əıspaıəd], scene [sı:n], anonymous [əınonıməs]
II Read the text and answer the following questions:
1. What were the branches that comprised the Kazan khanate economy?

2. What made the cultural life of the khanate flourish?


III Find the words that can be referred to one of the groups below:

Early History
The existence of a sedentary agricultural economy1 with roots in the Bulgar past of the khanate is not indicated by the structure of the tax system alone; it is reinforced2 by linguistic evidence and by the folk traditions of the Tatars. Sabantui, the Tatar festival of the plow, is perhaps the most enduring cultural legacy3 of the pre-Islamic traditions of the Bulgars and stands today as a living testimony4 to the sedentary agricultural life of the ancestors of the Kazan Tatar.

The economic structure of the Kazan khanate retained the principal features5 of the Bulgar state; agriculture, crafts, and trade were its chief components. On nobles’ lands, the three-field technique was widespread and was combined with gardening and cattle breeding. Hunting provided a major supplement for the livelihood of the peasants6; furs were one of the principal items of trade7. In the crafts, the Bulgar traditions continued: leatherwork, shoemaking, jewelry and pottery remained important.

Kazan grew into a wealthy, prosperous state on the basis8 of trade and trade taxes and enjoyed a flourishing cultural life9. Education and literature developed in the spirit of Islamic religion. Mektebs and medreses – elementary and secondary Muslim schools, respectively – enjoyed the support of the khans and pious foundations.

The period of the Kazan khanate is also the time in Tatar history when the ethnogenesis10 of the Kazan Tatars entered its final stages and when their language took shape as a distinct branch11 of the Turkic languages.



Muhammediar Mahmut-ogly is the best known of the poets of the khanate period. His poems, Tuhfai-Mardan (1539) and Nur-i Sudur (1542), provide insight into12 the values of Kazani society in the sixteenth century, while also revealing the richness13 of the literary life of the khanate. There were so many poets in Kazan that ‘there was no room left; child and venerable old man alike aspired to be poets14. Most of these poets who apparently crowded the Kazani literary scene have remained anonymous. Some names – such as those of Garifbek, Emmikamal, and Muhammed Sheref, the author of Zafername-i vilayet-i Kazan (1550) – have been preserved.
Notes:

1 sedentary agricultural economy – оседлая аграрная экономика

2 it is reinforced –

3 enduring cultural legacy – несущий культурное наследие

4 living testimony – живое доказательство

5 retained the principal features – сохранила главные черты

6 Hunting provided a major supplement for the livelihood of the peasants –

7 one of the principal items of trade – один из главных пунктов

8 on the basis of – на основе

9 enjoyed a flourishing cultural life –

10 ethnogenesis

11 took shape as a distinct branch – отдельная ветвь

12 provide insight into –

13 while also revealing the richness –

14 there was no room left; child and venerable old man alike aspired to be poets – зд. стихоплетов – хоть пруд пруди: все, от мала до велика, стремились стать поэтами
Before you start
I. Read:
Key words
architectural [ֽa:kııtekt∫ərəl], medieval [ֽmedııı:vəl], preserved [prıızə:vd], site [saıt], distinguished [dııstıηgwı∫t], oriental [ֽo:rııentl], style [staıl], two-storey [ֽtu:ısto:rı], feudal [ıfju:dl], nobility [nouıbılıtı], khan's [ıka:nz], palace [ıpælıs], law [lo:], court [ko:t], public [ıpΛblık], baths [ba:θs], mausoleums [ֽmo:səılı:əmz], mosques [mosks], elegant [ıelıgənt], minarets [ֽmınəırets], [ımınərets], vaulted [ıvo:ltıd], arcaded [a:ıkeıdıd], mouldings [ımouldıηz], frescoes [ıfreskouz], coloured [ıkΛləd], mosaics [mouızeııks], ceramics [sııræmıks], tracery [ıtreısərı], marble [ıma:bəl], conquerors [ıkoηkərəz], memoirs [ımemwa:z], edifice [ıedıfıs], Annunciation [əֽnΛnsııeı∫ən], cathedral [kəıθı:drəl], erected [ıırektıd], enchanted [ınıt∫a:ntıd], bewitched [bııwıt∫t], indestructible [ֽındııstrΛktıbəl], spirit [ıspırıt], heritage [ıherıtıdЗ], ancient [ıeın∫ənt], civilization [ֽsıvəlaızıeı∫ən], religious [rıılıdЗəs], tolerance [ıtolərəns], merchants [ımə:t∫ənts], cemeteries [ısemıtrız], Islam [ıısla:m], [ıızla:m], Christianity [ֽkrıstııænıtı]

Каталог: docs
docs -> Қызылорда облысының 2015 жылғЫ Әлеуметтік-экономикалық даму нәтижелері
docs -> Бекітемін Тарих және шетелдік студенттермен жұмыс факультетінің деканы
docs -> Программа по истории Казахстана: программа для 5-9 кл. / Б. К. Абдугулова. Алматы, 1999. 42 с. Абдугулова, Б. К. «Воспитание учащихся в духе дружбы народов при изучении истории ссср»
docs -> Қазақстан Республикасының Заңы
docs -> А. С. Пушкин атындағы шығыс қазақстан облыстық кітапханасы а. С Пушкин атындағы кітапхана қорына түскен жаңА Әдебиеттер тізімі


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